ملحق تحريك الموتورات الخطوية A4988 مع مشتت حراري
This product is a carrier board or breakout board for Allegro’s A4988 DMOS Microstepping Driver with Translator and Overcurrent Protection; we therefore recommend careful reading of the A4988 datasheet (1MB pdf) before using this product. This stepper motor driver lets you control one bipolar stepper motor at up to 2 A output current per coil (see the Power Dissipation Considerations section below for more information). Here are some of the driver’s key features:
This product ships with all surface-mount components—including the A4988 driver IC—installed as shown in the product picture.
This product ships individually packaged with 0.1″ male header pins included but not soldered in; we also carry a version with male header pins already soldered in. For customers interested in higher volumes at lower unit costs, we offer a bulk-packaged version without header pins and a bulk-packaged version with header pins installed.
Note that we carry several stepper motor drivers that can be used as alternatives for this module (and drop-in replacements in many applications):
We also sell a larger version of the A4988 carrier that has reverse power protection on the main power input and built-in 5 V and 3.3 V voltage regulators that eliminate the need for separate logic and motor supplies.
Some unipolar stepper motors (e.g. those with six or eight leads) can be controlled by this driver as bipolar stepper motors. For more information, please see the frequently asked questions. Unipolar motors with five leads be used with this driver.
The A4988 stepper motor driver carrier comes with one 1×16-pin breakaway 0.1" male header. The headers can be soldered in for use with solderless breadboards or 0.1" female connectors. You can also solder your motor leads and other connections directly to the board. (A version of this board with headers already installed is also available.)
Using the driver
Minimal wiring diagram for connecting a microcontroller to an A4988 stepper motor driver carrier (full-step mode).
The driver requires a logic supply voltage (3 – 5.5 V) to be connected across the VDD and GND pins and a motor supply voltage (8 – 35 V) to be connected across VMOT and GND. These supplies should have appropriate decoupling capacitors close to the board, and they should be capable of delivering the expected currents (peaks up to 4 A for the motor supply).
Four, six, and eight-wire stepper motors can be driven by the A4988 if they are properly connected; a FAQ answer explains the proper wirings in detail.
Step (and microstep) size
Stepper motors typically have a step size specification (e.g. 1.8° or 200 steps per revolution), which applies to full steps. A microstepping driver such as the A4988 allows higher resolutions by allowing intermediate step locations, which are achieved by energizing the coils with intermediate current levels. For instance, driving a motor in quarter-step mode will give the 200-step-per-revolution motor 800 microsteps per revolution by using four different current levels.
The resolution (step size) selector inputs (MS1, MS2, and MS3) enable selection from the five step resolutions according to the table below. MS1 and MS3 have internal 100kΩ pull-down resistors and MS2 has an internal 50kΩ pull-down resistor, so leaving these three microstep selection pins disconnected results in full-step mode. For the microstep modes to function correctly, the current limit must be set low enough (see below) so that current limiting gets engaged. Otherwise, the intermediate current levels will not be correctly maintained, and the motor will skip microsteps.
Each pulse to the STEP input corresponds to one microstep of the stepper motor in the direction selected by the DIR pin. Note that the STEP and DIR pins are not pulled to any particular voltage internally, so you should not leave either of these pins floating in your application. If you just want rotation in a single direction, you can tie DIR directly to VCC or GND. The chip has three different inputs for controlling its many power states: RST, SLP, and EN. For details about these power states, see the datasheet. Please note that the RST pin is floating; if you are not using the pin, you can connect it to the adjacent SLP pin on the PCB to bring it high and enable the board.
One way to maximize stepper motor performance is to use as high of a voltage as is practical for your application. In particular, increasing the voltage generally allows for higher step rates and stepping torque since the current can change more quickly in the coils after each step. However, in order to safely use voltages above the rated voltage of a stepper motor, the coil current must be actively limited to keep it from exceeding the motor’s rated current.
The A4988 supports such active current limiting, and the trimmer potentiometer on the board can be used to set the current limit. One way to set the current limit is to put the driver into full-step mode and measure the current running through a single motor coil while adjusting the current limit potentiometer. This should be done with the motor holding a fixed position (i.e. without clocking the STEP input). Note that the current you are measuring is only 70% of the actual current limit setting, since both coils are always on and limited to this value in full-step mode, so if you later enable microstepping modes, the current through the coils will be able to exceed this measured full-step current by 40% (1/0.7) on certain steps; please take this into account when using this method to set the current limit. Also, note that you will need to perform this adjustment again if you ever change the logic voltage, Vdd, since the reference voltage that sets the current limit is a function of Vdd.
Note: The coil current can be very different from the power supply current, so you should use the current measured at the power supply to set the current limit. The appropriate place to put your current meter is in series with one of your stepper motor coils.
Another way to set the current limit is to calculate the reference voltage that corresponds to your desired current limit and then adjust the current limit potentiometer until you measure that voltage on the VREF pin. The VREF pin voltage is accessible on a via that is circled on the bottom silkscreen of the circuit board. The current limit, IMAX, relates to the reference voltage as follows:
or, rearranged to solve for VREF:
RCS is the current sense resistance; original versions of this board used 0.050 Ω current sense resistors, but we switched to using 0.068 Ω current sense resistors in January 2017, which makes more of the adjustment potentiometer’s range useful. The following picture shows how to identify which current sense resistors your board has:
Identification of original 50 mΩ sense resistors (left) and 68 mΩ sense resistors (right) introduced in January 2017.
So, for example, if you want to set the current limit to 1 A and you have a board with 68 mΩ sense resistors, you would set VREF to 540 mV. Doing this ensures that even though the current through each coil changes from step to step, the magnitude of the current vector in the stepper motor stays constant at 1 A: